The Janka Hardness Scale

The Janka Hardness Scale is a measurement of the force necessary to embed a .444-inch (11.28 mm) steel ball to half its diameter in wood. It is the industry standard for gauging the ability of various species to tolerate denting and normal wear, as well as being a good indication of the effort required to work (nail, saw, carve, etc.) the particular wood.

The Red Oak, which has a Janka rating of 1290, is the industry benchmark for comparing the relative hardness of different wood species. Since the hardness of the wood varies with the direction of the grain, both side testing and end testing is performed on wood.

Here are some examples of various woods and their Janka Hardness Rating. Obviously, this is only a short list of all the available woods but hopefully will give a good representation of the most common ones.

Wood Species Hardness
Buckeye (Yellow) 350
Aspen (Quaking) 350
Eastern White Pine 380
Basswood (American) 410
White Pine 420
Aspen (Big Tooth) 420
Hemlock 500
Banak 510
Chestnut 540
Baldcypress 570
Larch 590
Alder (Red) 590
Douglas Fir 660
Southern Yellow Pine (short leaf) 690
Shedua 710
Box Elder 720
Birch (Grey) 760
Sycamore 770
Parana 780
Lacewood 840
Leopardwood 840
Ash (Black) 850
Southern Yellow Pine (longleaf) 870
Cedar 900
Birch (Paper) 910
Boire 940
Imbuia 950
Black Cherry 950
American Cherry 950
Sakura 995
Ash (Pumpkin) 990
Teak 1000
Black Walnut 1010
Albarco 1020
Boreal 1023
Avodire 1080
Makore 1100
Brazilian Eucalyptus 1125
Andiroba 1130
Cocobolo 1136
Ash (Oregon) 1160
Ash (Green) 1200
Movingui 1230
Birch (Yellow) 1260
Red Oak (Northern) 1290
Angelique 1290
American Beech 1300
Ash (White) 1320
Ribbon Gum 1349
Tasmanian Oak 1350
White Oak 1360
Australian Cypress 1375
Natural Bamboo 1380
Coffee Bean 1390
Hard Maple 1450
Brazilian Oak 1460
Birch (Sweet) 1470
Curupixa 1490
Brazilian Maple 1500
Sapele 1510
Kambala 1540
Peroba 1557
Afromosia 1560
Timborana 1570
Zebrawood 1575
Tualang 1624
Red Pine 1630
Wenge 1630
Highland Beech 1686
Locust 1700
Kempas 1710
Merbau 1712
Blackwood 1720
Angelim 1720
African Pedauk 1725
Apple 1730
Angelin 1750
Benge 1750
Rosewood 1780
Bangkirai 1798
Afzelia 1810
Doussie 1810
Hickory 1820
Pecan 1820
Satinwood 1820
Goncalo Alves 1850
Tigerwood 1850
Purpleheart 1860
Jarrah 1910
Amendoin 1912
Merbau 1925
Tallowwood 1933
Cameron 1940
Bubinga 1980
Sydney Blue Gum 2023
Kari 2030
Ash (Blue) 2030
Moabi 2050
South American Pearwood 2100
Brushbox 2135
Pradoo 2170
Bocote 2200
Cabreuva 2200
Santos Mahogany 2200
Tatajuba 2220
Mesquite 2345
Jatoba 2350
Spotted Gum 2473
Bubinga 2690
Red Mahogany 2697
Turpentine 2697
Bloodwood 2900
Angelim Pedra 3040
Brazilian Redwood 3190
Paraju 3190
Tiete Rosewood 3200
Ebony 3220
Azobe 3350
Cumaru 3540
Ipe 3680

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